I’m giving a talk during a trip to work with Dr Fiona Jordan at the University of Bristol.
Just returned from setting up a new field project in Samoa. We will be doing work similar to that in Aleipata–coring, geology, and archaeology in Fagaloa, a large bay on Upolu’s northwest coastline.
Just getting around to putting up some research:
Whole article here: Cochrane2015JPS
I’ve been admonished by students for not posting enough, so I will redouble my efforts. Shouldn’t be difficult redoubling nothing. Here are some shots from recent meetings of Pacific archaeologists.
Some of the participants from the 2015 Society for American Archaeolology Dickinson symposium honouring the work of geologist and petrographer William R. Dickinson. From left, back row: Pat Kirch, Matthew Spriggs, Marshall Weisler, ?, Bill Dickinson, David Burley, Barry Rollett, Alex Morrison, Robin Torrence; front row, Melinda Allen, Peter White, Scarlett Chiu, Christophe Sand, Ethan Cochrane, Scott Fitzpatrick, ?, ?, ?.
Some of the participants from the 8th Lapita conference in Port Villa, Vanuatu who spoke about the Lapita decorative system. From left: Matthew Spriggs, Arnaud Noury, Pat Kirch, David Burley, Wal Ambrose, Ethan Cochrane
We’ve completed our project focusing on the early deposits of southeastern ‘Upolu. Below is the non-technical summary or our work:
Archaeological and geological research was conducted along the southeast coast of ‘Upolu Island, Sāmoa over three short field seasons in 2013 and 2014. The goal of the research was to answer the question: where are the earliest Sāmoan settlements? The current earliest settlement is located at Mulifanua and is dated to about 750 BC, near the time that Tonga was first colonised by ancient sailors and perhaps 200 years after Fiji was first colonised. These earliest sites in Samoa, Tonga and Fiji all have a distinctive form of highly decorated pottery called Lapita. While, both Fiji and Tonga have many archaeological sites with Lapita pottery dating to about 950-750 BC, only the Mulifanua site in Sāmoa has Lapita pottery and is this old. A key question for archaeologists is ‘are there more Lapita sites in Sāmoa that are as old as Mulifanua?’ Answering this question is complicated by the fact that the coastlines of ‘Upolu Island have been submerged over the last three thousand years by changes in sea-level and by the geological “sinking” of the island, drawn down by the weight of Savai‘i. Therefore the areas where ancient Sāmoans may have settled at 750 BC may now be offshore and underwater, or buried under metres of sediment. Previous research by geologists indicates that the coastlines of eastern ‘Upolu may have been the least affected by island sinking. Therefore, the research reported here explored this area for 750 BC archaeological sites.
Four archaeological excavations, each 2 x 1 metres in area, and 59 hand-driven auger cores examined the underground deposits along the coastal plain between Lalomanu and Malaelā villages. The geological results indicate that this coastal plain likely did not exist until about AD 800. Before this the area would have been a rocky coast with few or no beaches. After AD 800 relative sea-level retreated and a reef sand beach was exposed. This beach grew toward the current shoreline over time.
The earliest human presence in the area occurs around AD 1400, evidenced by a fire hearth built upon the reef-sand beach, associated artefacts and microscopic plant fossils. The artefact assemblage is small and includes three pottery sherds, a small shell fishhook, broken stone adzes, and stone debris from tool-making. There are also food remains including faisua and other shellfish eaten by Sāmoans, fish such as wrasse and tuna, sharks or rays, and pig. Microscopic plant fossils identified in the archaeological layers show that after humans arrived in the area parts of the forest were burned, likely for plantations, and there was an increase in plants that grow in disturbed forests.
No archaeological sites as old as Mulifanua were found in the study area suggesting that the earliest Sāmoan population at about 750 BC may have been limited to only a few settlements. Limited Lapita settlement may have been caused by a lack of coastal plains on which to build villages, as the coastal plain between Lalomanu and Malaelā in south-eastern ‘Upolu did not form until AD 800. Even after this time, the coastal plain was not used by people for another 600 years
And in Samoan:
O suesuega i mataupu tau Talaeli ma Agnuu Tuufaasolo a Samoa faapea le suesuega i le mataupu tau le Eleele, sa faatinoina lea i Aleipata i le itu i sasae o Upolu, i le tausaga 2013 – 2014. O le manulauti o nei suesuega ina ia mafai ona tali le fesili; Pe o fea tonu le vaega o le atunuu na uluai nofoia e tagata Samoa?
Ua māua i suesuega i talaeli o Mulifanua na uluai faamauina, na uluai nofoia, e tusa ma le 800 TLM, tusa lea ma le taimi na uluai nofoia ai e tagata folau atunuu o Toga ma Fiti pe tusa ma le 200 tausaga talu ai. O ia nofoaga taua i Samoa, Toga ma Fiti na maua ai ipuele ua faaigoaina o Lapita. E tele nofoaga i Toga ma Fiti sa maua ai ipuele ma pe tusa ma le 800TLM. Na o Mulifanua le nofoaga i Samoa na maua ai lenei ipuele. E le o mailoa i le taimi nei, pe o iai se isi afioaga o Samoa na uluai nofoia e tagata e pei o Mulifanua. O le taliina o lenei fesili e fai si faigata tele ona o le mea moni e tusa ai ma suesuega i talaeli ma suesuega tau le eleele, ua faalia ai, mai le 3000 tausaga talu ai ua tafia le talafatai o Upolu ma ua lofia se vaega o le atunuu. O lona uiga o le vaega o nofoaga o Samoa sa uluai nofoia e tagata pe tusa nei ma le 800 tausaga talu ai ua tele ina ufitia e le suasami. O suesuega i mataupu tau le eleele sa faatinoina muamua i le talafai i le itu i sasae o Upolu ua faalia ai e lei magoto tele lea vaega o le atunuu, peitai o loo fai pea i ai suesuega i le taimi nei
E 4 lua sa eli i Satitoa i Aleipata, ma pe tusa ma le lua mita le umi, ae tasi le mita le lautele (2×1), le telē o le vaega na eli. Sa faaaogaina foi le masini faapitoa (hand – driven auger) mo lenei galuega, e eli ai ni pu e 59 i le talafatai o Aleipata mai le afioaga o Lalomanu i Malaela. O le taunuuga o lea elieliga/suesuega ua faalia ai, e lei iai se matafaga i lea vaega o le atunuu talu mai le 800TA sa na o le papa maa sa iai i le talafatai i lea vaega o Samoa. O lona uiga i tua atu o le 800TA na faatoa iai le matafaga mai oneone o le aau seia oo lava ina olaola pea e oo mai i le taimi nei.
O le vaitau na uluai nofoia ai e tagata lea vaega o le atunuu pe tusa ma le 1400TA. O le pinefaamau o lea mau o tainafi sa maua i lenei elieliga/suesuega, o atigi figota, mātau, to’ima’a, o nutigāma’a sa fai ai aupega i aso anamua. Sa maua ai foi atigi faisua ma atigi figota, o ivi ia ma ivi o moa ma puaa. Na māua foi i lenei suesuega ina ua uluai nofoia e tagata lenei ogaeleele na agai loa e fa’ato’a, susunu ma toto ai la’au ua mafua ai ona afaina le eleele lelei sa iai muamua.
E lei iai se nofoaga o Samoa ua umi ma leva ona nofoia e pei o Mulifanua ua faamauina i lenei suesuega, e faailoa mai ai le faitauaofai o tagata sa nofoia lenei eleele pe tusa ma le 800 tausaga talu ai Ua mafua lea tulaga ona o le leai ose nofoaga maualalo i le va o Lalomanu ma Malaela e faigofie ona nofoia e tagata. E oo foi i lena vaitau, e lei toe nofoia e tagata lenei ogaeleele tusa ma le 600 tausaga talu ai.
Rod Wallace (University of Auckland) identified some Cocos nucifera nutshell amongst the charcoal in our fire feature that sits on the basal beach sand in excavations from Aleipata.
This charcoal has been sent to the Waikato lab for dating. The results will be excellent no matte the date, as we might presume the date will give us a good indication of first use of the area. Will it be synchronous with beach formation? With Lapita colonization?
A short summary of our archaeological fieldwork in Satitoa Village, Aleipata District, Samoa is available:
It’s almost all over for us here in Aleipata, investigating the coastline’s prehistory. Our final archaeological test pit uncovered the paleobeach we’ve been seeing in most places, with a silty-sand layer on top that had a few midden shells, a lithic, and a piece of plainware pottery.
We’ve made a pretty good go of it: four 2 x 1 m controlled units, about 60 auger cores (since 2013). We are consistently getting a thin cultural layer with minimal artefacts and plainware pottery on top of carbonate beach, likely on top of basalt (Pleistocene?) bedrock. If the UH geologists come back with a mid-holocene date for the subsurface beach this will *suggest* that there were no Lapita-bearing populations here, even though the landscape was available. Pretty interesting stuff.
We went inland today to explore possible upland deposits and came across a great ditch and bank system that was likely defensive. These are found all over Samoa (and elsewhere) and may date to the last 1000 to 500 years.